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NAMEtty - general terminal interface
DESCRIPTIONThis section describes the interface to the terminal drivers in the system.
Terminal Special FilesEach hardware terminal port on the system usually has a terminal special device file associated with it in the directory ``/dev/'' (for example, ``/dev/tty03''). When a user logs into the system on one of these hardware terminal ports, the system has already opened the associated device and prepared the line for normal interactive use (see getty(8).) There is also a special case of a terminal file that connects not to a hardware terminal port, but to another program on the other side. These special terminal devices are called ptys and provide the mechanism necessary to give users the same interface to the system when logging in over a network (using rlogin(1), or telnet(1) for example). Even in these cases the details of how the terminal file was opened and set up is already handled by special software in the system. Thus, users do not normally need to worry about the details of how these lines are opened or used. Also, these lines are often used for dialing out of a system (through an out-calling modem), but again the system provides programs that hide the details of accessing these terminal special files (see tip(1)).
When an interactive user logs in, the system prepares the line to behave in a certain way (called a line discipline ) the particular details of which is described in stty(1) at the command level, and in termios(4) at the programming level. A user may be concerned with changing settings associated with his particular login terminal and should refer to the preceding man pages for the common cases. The remainder of this man page is concerned with describing details of using and controlling terminal devices at a low level, such as that possibly required by a program wishing to provide features similar to those provided by the system.
Terminal File OperationsAll of the following operations are invoked using the ioctl(2) system call. Refer to that man page for a description of the request and argp parameters. In addition to the ioctl requests defined here, the specific line discipline in effect will define other requests specific to it (actually termios(4) defines them as function calls, not ioctl requests . The following section lists the available ioctl requests. The name of the request, a description of its purpose, and the typed argp parameter (if any) are listed. For example, the first entry says
and would be called on the terminal associated with file descriptor zero by the following code fragment:
int pgrp; pgrp = getpgrp(); ioctl(0, TIOCSPGRP, &pgrp);
Terminal File Request Descriptions
- TIOCSETD Fa int *ldisc
- This call is obsolete but left for compatibility. Before Fx 8.0 , it would change to the new line discipline pointed to by Fa ldisc .
- TIOCGETD Fa int *ldisc
- Return the current line discipline in the integer pointed to by Fa ldisc .
- TIOCSBRK Fa void
- Set the terminal hardware into BREAK condition.
- TIOCCBRK Fa void
- Clear the terminal hardware BREAK condition.
- TIOCSDTR Fa void
- Assert data terminal ready (DTR).
- TIOCCDTR Fa void
- Clear data terminal ready (DTR).
- TIOCGPGRP Fa int *tpgrp
- Return the current process group with which the terminal is associated in the integer pointed to by Fa tpgrp . This is the underlying call that implements the termios(4) Fn tcgetattr call.
- TIOCSPGRP Fa int *tpgrp
- Associate the terminal with the process group (as an integer) pointed to by Fa tpgrp . This is the underlying call that implements the termios(4) Fn tcsetattr call.
- TIOCGETA Fa struct termios *term
- Place the current value of the termios state associated with the device in the termios structure pointed to by Fa term . This is the underlying call that implements the termios(4) Fn tcgetattr call.
- TIOCSETA Fa struct termios *term
- Set the termios state associated with the device immediately. This is the underlying call that implements the termios(4) Fn tcsetattr call with the TCSANOW option.
- TIOCSETAW Fa struct termios *term
- First wait for any output to complete, then set the termios state associated with the device. This is the underlying call that implements the termios(4) Fn tcsetattr call with the TCSADRAIN option.
- TIOCSETAF Fa struct termios *term
- First wait for any output to complete, clear any pending input, then set the termios state associated with the device. This is the underlying call that implements the termios(4) Fn tcsetattr call with the TCSAFLUSH option.
- TIOCOUTQ Fa int *num
- Place the current number of characters in the output queue in the integer pointed to by Fa num .
- TIOCSTI Fa char *cp
- Simulate typed input. Pretend as if the terminal received the character pointed to by Fa cp .
- TIOCNOTTY Fa void
This call is obsolete but left for compatibility.
In the past, when a process that did not have a controlling terminal (see
The Controlling Terminal
first opened a terminal device, it acquired that terminal as its
For some programs this was a hazard as they
did not want a controlling terminal in the first place, and this
provided a mechanism to disassociate the controlling terminal from
the calling process.
be called by opening the file
on that file descriptor.
The current system does not allocate a controlling terminal to a process on an Fn open call: there is a specific ioctl called TIOCSCTTY to make a terminal the controlling terminal. In addition, a program can Fn fork and call the Fn setsid system call which will place the process into its own session - which has the effect of disassociating it from the controlling terminal. This is the new and preferred method for programs to lose their controlling terminal.
- TIOCSTOP Fa void
- Stop output on the terminal (like typing ^S at the keyboard).
- TIOCSTART Fa void
- Start output on the terminal (like typing ^Q at the keyboard).
- TIOCSCTTY Fa void
- Make the terminal the controlling terminal for the process (the process must not currently have a controlling terminal).
- TIOCDRAIN Fa void
- Wait until all output is drained.
- TIOCEXCL Fa void
- Set exclusive use on the terminal. No further opens are permitted except by root. Of course, this means that programs that are run by root (or setuid) will not obey the exclusive setting - which limits the usefulness of this feature.
- TIOCNXCL Fa void
- Clear exclusive use of the terminal. Further opens are permitted.
- TIOCFLUSH Fa int *what
- If the value of the int pointed to by Fa what contains the FREAD bit as defined in In sys/file.h , then all characters in the input queue are cleared. If it contains the FWRITE bit, then all characters in the output queue are cleared. If the value of the integer is zero, then it behaves as if both the FREAD and FWRITE bits were set (i.e., clears both queues).
- TIOCGWINSZ Fa struct winsize *ws
- Put the window size information associated with the terminal in the winsize structure pointed to by Fa ws . The window size structure contains the number of rows and columns (and pixels if appropriate) of the devices attached to the terminal. It is set by user software and is the means by which most full-screen oriented programs determine the screen size. The winsize structure is defined in In sys/ioctl.h .
- TIOCSWINSZ Fa struct winsize *ws
- Set the window size associated with the terminal to be the value in the winsize structure pointed to by Fa ws (see above).
- TIOCCONS Fa int *on
- If Fa on points to a non-zero integer, redirect kernel console output (kernel printf's) to this terminal. If Fa on points to a zero integer, redirect kernel console output back to the normal console. This is usually used on workstations to redirect kernel messages to a particular window.
- TIOCMSET Fa int *state
The integer pointed to by
contains bits that correspond to modem state.
Following is a list of defined variables and the modem state they represent:
- Line Enable.
- Data Terminal Ready.
- Request To Send.
- Secondary Transmit.
- Secondary Receive.
- Clear To Send.
- Carrier Detect.
- Carrier Detect (synonym).
- Ring Indication.
- Ring Indication (synonym).
- Data Set Ready.
This call sets the terminal modem state to that represented by Fa state . Not all terminals may support this.
- TIOCMGET Fa int *state
- Return the current state of the terminal modem lines as represented above in the integer pointed to by Fa state .
- TIOCMBIS Fa int *state
- The bits in the integer pointed to by Fa state represent modem state as described above, however the state is OR-ed in with the current state.
- TIOCMBIC Fa int *state
- The bits in the integer pointed to by Fa state represent modem state as described above, however each bit which is on in Fa state is cleared in the terminal.