Copyright 1993 Giorgio Ciucci (email@example.com) %%%LICENSE_START(VERBATIM) Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies. Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one. S...
NAMEftok - convert a pathname and a project identifier to a System V IPC key
#include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/ipc.h>
key_t ftok(const char *pathname, int proj_id);
DESCRIPTIONThe ftok() function uses the identity of the file named by the given pathname (which must refer to an existing, accessible file) and the least significant 8 bits of proj_id (which must be nonzero) to generate a key_t type System V IPC key, suitable for use with msgget(2), semget(2), or shmget(2).
The resulting value is the same for all pathnames that name the same file, when the same value of proj_id is used. The value returned should be different when the (simultaneously existing) files or the project IDs differ.
RETURN VALUEOn success, the generated key_t value is returned. On failure -1 is returned, with errno indicating the error as for the stat(2) system call.
ATTRIBUTESFor an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7).
CONFORMING TOPOSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008.
NOTESOn some ancient systems, the prototype was:
- key_t ftok(char *pathname, char proj_id);
Today, proj_id is an int, but still only 8 bits are used. Typical usage has an ASCII character proj_id, that is why the behavior is said to be undefined when proj_id is zero.
Of course, no guarantee can be given that the resulting key_t is unique. Typically, a best-effort attempt combines the given proj_id byte, the lower 16 bits of the inode number, and the lower 8 bits of the device number into a 32-bit result. Collisions may easily happen, for example between files on /dev/hda1 and files on /dev/sda1.