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NAMEMail::Message::Construct::Forward - forwarding a Mail::Message
my Mail::Message $forward = $message->forward(To => 'you'); $forward->send;
DESCRIPTIONComplex functionality on Mail::Message objects is implemented in different files which are autoloaded. This file implements the functionality related to creating forwarded messages.
Constructing a message
Forward the content of this message. The body of the message to be forwarded
is encapsulated in some accompanying text (if you have no wish for that, than
"bounce" is your choice). A Mail::Message object is returned on success.
You may forward a whole message, but also message parts. You may wish to overrule some of the default header settings for the reply immediately, or you may do that later with "set" on the header.
When a multi-part body is encountered, and the message is included toATTACH,the parts which look like signatures will be removed. If only one message remains, it will be the added as single attachment, otherwise a nested multipart will be the result. The value of this option does not matter, as long as it is present. See "Mail::Message::Body::Multipart".
-Option --Default Bcc undef Cc undef Date <now> From <'to' in current> Message-ID <uniquely generated> Subject forwardSubject() To <required> body undef include <if body then 'NO' else C<'INLINE'>> preamble constructed from prelude and postlude signature undef
- Bcc => ADDRESSES
- Receivers of blind carbon copies: their names will not be published to other message receivers.
- Cc => ADDRESSES
- The carbon-copy receivers, by default none.
- Date => DATE
- The date to be used in the message sent.
- From => ADDRESSES
- Your identification, by default taken from the "To" field of the source message.
- Message-ID => STRING
Supply a STRINGas specific message-id for the forwarded message. By default, one is generated for you. If there are no angles around your id, they will be added.
- Subject => STRING|CODE
Force the subject line to the specific STRING,or the result of the subroutine specified byCODE.The subroutine will be called passing the subject of the original message as only argument. By default, the forwardSubject() method is used.
- To => ADDRESSES
The destination of your message. Obligatory. The ADDRESSESmay be specified as string, a Mail::Address object, or as array of Mail::Address objects.
- body => OBJECT
If you specify a fully prepared body OBJECT,it will be used as forwarded message contents. In this case, only the headers are constructed for you.
- include => 'NO'|'INLINE'|'ATTACH'|'ENCAPSULATE'
Must the message where this is a reply to be included in the message?
When "INLINE" is given, you may pass the options of forwardInline()
In many applications, the forward option "as attachment" results in a structure which is produced when this option is set to "ENCAPSULATE". Their default behavior is usually "INLINE".
It is only possible to inline textual messages, therefore binary or multi-part messages will always be enclosed as attachment. Read the details in section ``Creating a forward''..
- preamble => STRING|BODY
- Part which is attached before the forwarded message. If no preamble is given, then it is constructed from the prelude and postlude. When these are also not present, you will still get a one liner: the result of forwardPrelude()
- signature => BODY|MESSAGE
The signature to be added in case of a multi-part forward. The mime-type
of the signature body should indicate this is a used as such. However,
in INLINEmode, the body will be taken, a line containing '-- ' added before it, and added behind the epilogue.
- Bcc =>
Forward the message as flat attachment to the specified "preamble". You
can specify all options available to "forward()", although a "preamble"
which is provided as body object is required, and any specified "body"
-Option --Default preamble <required>
- preamble => BODY|PART
Like forwardAttach(), but in this case the original message is first
encapsulated as nested message in a Mail::Message::Body::Nested, and
then joint into a multipart.
You can specify all options available to "forward()", although a "preamble" which is provided as body object is required, and any specified "body" is ignored. Signatures are not stripped. Signatures are not stripped.
-Option --Default preamble <required>
- preamble => BODY|PART
This method is equivalent in behavior to forward() with the
option "include" set to 'INLINE'. You can specify most of
the fields which are available to forward() except
"include" and "body".
-Option --Default is_attached "[The forwarded message is attached]\n" max_signature 10 postlude undef prelude undef quote undef strip_signature qr/^--\s/
- is_attached => STRING
- A forward on binary messages can not be inlined. Therefore, they are automatically translated into an attachment, as made by forwardAttach(). The obligatory preamble option to that method may be specified as option to this method, to be used in case of such a forward of a binary, but is otherwise constructed from the prelude, the value of this option, and the postlude.
- max_signature => INTEGER
- Passed to Mail::Message::Body::stripSignature(max_lines). Only effective for single-part messages.
- postlude => BODY
- The line(s) which to be added after the quoted reply lines. Create a body for it first. This should not include the signature, which has its own option. The signature will be added after the postlude when the forwarded message is "INLINE"d.
- prelude => BODY
- The line(s) which will be added before the quoted forwarded lines. If nothing is specified, the result of the forwardPrelude() method is used. When "undef" is specified, no prelude will be added.
- quote => CODE|STRING
Mangle the lines of an "INLINE"d reply with CODE,or by prepending aSTRINGto each line. The routine specified byCODEis called when the line is in $_.
By default, nothing is added before each line. This option is processed after the body has been decoded.
- strip_signature => REGEXP|STRING|CODE
- Remove the signature of the sender. The value of this parameter is passed to Mail::Message::Body::stripSignature(pattern), unless the source text is not included. The signature is stripped from the message before quoting.
- is_attached =>
Construct a forward, where the whole body of the message is already
constructed. That complex body is usually produced in forwardInline(),
forwardAttach(), or forwardEncapsulate().
The %options are the same as for "forward()" except that "body" is required. Some other options, like "preamble", are ignored.
-Option--Default body <required>
- body => BODY
- body =>
Added after the forwarded message.
---- END forwarded message
Create a few lines to be included before the forwarded message
content. The return is an array of lines.
---- BEGIN forwarded message From: email@example.com (Original Sender) To: firstname.lastname@example.org (Me the receiver) Cc: email@example.com Date: Wed, 9 Feb 2000 15:44:05 -0500 <blank line>
Create a subject for a message which is a forward from this one. This routine
tries to count the level of reply in subject field, and transform it into
a standard form. Please contribute improvements.
subject --> Forw: subject Re: subject --> Forw: Re: subject Re[X]: subject --> Forw: Re[X]: subject <blank> --> Forwarded
Creating a forwardThe main difference between bounce() and forward() is the reason for message processing. The bounce has no intention to modify the content of message: the same information is passed-on to someplace else. This may mean some conversions, but for instance, the Message-ID does not need to be changed.
The purpose of forward() is to pass on information which is modified: annotated or reduced. The information is not sent back to the author of the original message (which is implemented by reply()), but to someone else.
So: some information comes in, is modified, and than forwarded to someone else. Currently, there are four ways to get the original information included, which are explained in the next sections.
After the creation of the forward, you may want to rebuild() the message to remove unnecessary complexities. Of course, that is not required.
forward, specify a body
When you specify forward(body), you have created your own body object to be used as content of the forwarded message. This implies that forward(include) is 'NO': no automatic generation of the forwarded body.
forward, inline the original
The forward(include) is set to 'INLINE' (the default) This is the most complicated situation, but most often used by MUAs: the original message is inserted textually in the new body. You can set-up automatic stripping of signatures, the way of encapsulation, and texts which should be added before and after the encapsulated part.
However, the result may not always be what you expect. For instance, some people use very long signatures which will not be automatically stripped because the pass the threshold. So, you probably need some manual intervention after the message is created and before it is sent.
When a binary message is encountered, inlining is impossible. In that case, the message is treated as if 'ENCAPSULATE' was requested.
forward, attach the original
When forward(include) is explicitly set to 'ATTACH' the result will be a multipart which contains two parts. The first part will be your message, and the second the body of the original message.
This means that the headers of the forwarded message are used for the new message, and detached from the part which now contains the original body information. Content related headers will (of course) still be part of that part, but lines line "To" and "Subject" will not be stored with that part.
As example of the structural transformation:
# code: $original->printStructure; multipart/alternative: The source message text/plain: content in raw text text/html: content as html # code: $fwd = $original->forward(include => 'ATTACH'); # code: $fwd->printStructure multipart/mixed: The source message text/plain: prelude/postlude/signature multipart/alternative text/plain: content in raw text text/html: content as html
forward, encapsulate the original
When forward(include) is explicitly set to 'ENCAPSULATE', then the original message is left in-tact as good as possible. The lines of the original message are used in the main message header but also enclosed in the part header.
The encapsulation is implemented using a nested message, content type "message/rfc822". As example of the structural transformation:
# code: $original->printStructure; multipart/alternative: The source message text/plain: content in raw text text/html: content as html # code: $fwd = $original->forward(include => 'ENCAPSULATE'); # code: $fwd->printStructure multipart/mixed: The source message text/plain: prelude/postlude/signature message/rfc822 multipart/alternative: The source message text/plain: content in raw text text/html: content as html
The message structure is much more complex, but no information is lost. This is probably the reason why many MUAs use this when the forward an original message as attachment.
- Error: Cannot include forward source as $include.
- Unknown alternative for the forward(include). Valid choices are "NO", "INLINE", "ATTACH", and "ENCAPSULATE".
- Error: Method forwardAttach requires a preamble
- Error: Method forwardEncapsulate requires a preamble
- Error: No address to create forwarded to.
- If a forward message is created, a destination address must be specified.
SEE ALSOThis module is part of Mail-Box distribution version 2.120, built on September 21, 2016. Website: perl.overmeer.net/mailbox
LICENSECopyrights 2001-2016 by [Mark Overmeer]. For other contributors see ChangeLog.
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. See www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html