NAMEswipl - SWI-Prolog 7.4.2
swipl [options] prolog-file ... [--] [arg ...]
swipl [options] [-o output] -c file ...
swipl [options] [-o output] -b initfile ...
The first version provides information about the system and exits immediately. The second version is the primary way to call Prolog on one or more Prolog source file(s) and provide arguments to the application that can be requested using current_prolog_flag(argv, Argv). The third version is used to create a saved state while the last version is used for boot-compilation of the Prolog parts of the system.
DESCRIPTIONSWI-Prolog is a comprehensive and stable implementation of the Prolog language with a large set of libraries. Among its distinguishing features are mature support for multi-threading, a mature embedded web-server library, graphical development tools (debugger, profiler, cross-referencer, editor), an embedded efficient RDF store, support for XML/SGML/HTML and Unicode. More widely supported features are support for constraint programming, atom garbage collection, interfaces to databases (ODBC), C, C++ and Java (JPL).
SWI-Prolog implements the ISO core standard. Many of its extensions are largely compatible to YAP and SICStus Prolog.
This manual page only lists the commandline options. Full documentation is available on-line as well as in HTML and PDF format from the WWW home page at www.swi-prolog.org
LICENSE INFORMATIONSWI-Prolog is distributed under the LGPL (GNU Lesser General Public License) for maximal compatibility with the Free Software movement, while allowing for use with proprietary software components. See the SWI-Prolog home page at www.swi-prolog.org for details.
- Gives a summary of the most important options.
- Displays version and architecture information.
- Prints the architecture identifier.
Dump information that is generally useful for installation scripts in
a form defined by
Defines formats are
sh (default, bourne shell) and cmd (Windows CMD).
This option is used by
to fetch necessary information about Prolog. It is normally invoked as
eval `swipl -dump-runtime-variables`,
which assigns the following shell variables:
- The C- compiler used to compile SWI-Prolog.
- The home directory of SWI-Prolog. This is the same value as returned by the current_prolog_flag home.
- The architecture identifier used. Together with PLBASE this defines the location of various components. For example, the library for embedding is in $PLBASE/lib/$PLARCH/libswipl.a
- CC identifier to link to SWI-Prolog. Typically -lswipl
- Additional libraries needed for linking PLLIB
- Flags that need to be passed to the C-compiler to generate compatible code.
- Flags that need to be passed to the C-linker for linking embedded executables.
- Extension used by the hosting operating system for shared objects. On most Unix systems this is "so"; on MS-Windows it is "dll". AIX uses "o", HPUX "sl".
- Environment variable used by the hosting operating system to extend the search path for shared objects. For example, on ELF systems this is "LD_LIBRARY_PATH" and on MS-Windows it is "PATH".
- Numeric representation of the SWI-Prolog version.
- If present, a version tag such as "rc1".
- Has the value yes if Prolog supports linking shared libraries using load_foreign_library/[1,2] and no otherwise.
- Has the value yes if Prolog was compiled for multi-threading and no otherwise.
- Sets the global stack size to size. The default is 128 Mbytes (64-bit machines: 256 Mbytes). The global stack is used to store compound terms, floating point numbers, big integers and strings. See also the -L option.
- Sets the local stack size to size. The default unit is Kbytes. The local stack is used to store environment frames, choicepoints and foreign-language term-references. SWI-Prolog performs last-call optimisation to minimize the local stack requirements. If the argument ends in m , the argument is interpreted in Mbytes. A g suffix is interpreted in Gbytes (64-bit machines only). This flag sets the maximum value to which the stack is allowed to grow (default 128 Mbytes for the 32-bit version and 256 Mbytes for the 64-bit version). A maximum is useful to prevent buggy programs from claiming all the memory resources. -L0 sets the limit to the highest possible value.
- Optimised compilation. See set_prolog_flag/3 in the SWI-Prolog Reference Manual.
- Sets the trail stack size to size K bytes. The default is 128 Mbytes (64-bit machines: 256 Mbytes). See -L for more details.
- -b initfile ... -c file ...
- Boot compilation. initfile ... are compiled by the C written bootstrap compiler, file ... by the normal Prolog compiler into an intermediate code file. This option is for system maintenance and is given for reference only.
- -c file ...
- Compiles file ... into an intermediate code file.
- -d level
- Set debug level to level. This option is for system maintenance and is given for reference only.
- -f file
- Use file as initialisation file instead of `.swiplrc'. `-f none' stops SWI-Prolog from searching for an initialisation file.
- -F file
- Select startup script from the SWI-Prolog home directory. file Specifies the base-name of the script. The extension is .rc. The default script is deduced from the basename of the executable, taking all leading alphanumerical (letters, digits and underscore) from the program name. Thus if the program is named swi-2.0 it will try to load the file swi.rc from the SWI-Prolog home directory. If the file does not exist, or the user has no read-access to it, the script is silently not loaded.
- -s file
as a script. This option may be used from the shell to make
Prolog load a file before entering the toplevel. It is also
used to turn a file into an executable Prolog script on Unix
systems using the following first line
- #!/usr/bin/swipl option ... -s
- -l file
- Load file as a script. This is a synonym for -s that is compatible with several other Prolog implementations. If multiple -s or -l arguments are provided, all specified files are loaded in the order in which they appear on the argument list.
- --quiet -q
- Operate silently. This option suppresses all informational messages.
- -g goal
- Goal is executed just before entering the top level. This option may appear multiple times. Goals are executed in the order of appearance. Possible choice points are pruned. If a goal fails an error is printed (depending on the -q flag) and the process stops with exit code 1. If a goal raises an exception the error is printed and the process stops with exit code 2. In no goal is present version/0 is called to write the welcome message. The welcome message can thus be suppressed by giving -g true. goal can be a complex term. In this case, quotes are normally needed to protect it from being expanded by the Unix shell.
- -o output
- Used in combination with -b or -c to determine the output file for compilation.
- -p alias=pathlist
- Define a path alias for file_search_path/2. pathlist is a ":" separated list of values for the alias. See file_search_path/2 in the SWI-Prolog Reference Manual.
- -t goal
- Use goal as an interactive top level instead of the default goal prolog/0. goal can be a complex term. If the top level goal succeeds, SWI-Prolog exits with status 0. If it fails, the exit status is 1. This flag also determines the goal started by break/0 and abort/0. If you want to stop the user from entering interactive mode, start the application with `-g goal' and give `halt' as the top level.
- -x bootfile
- Start from an intermediate code file resulting from a Prolog compilation using the -b or -c option, or created using qsave_program/[1,2].
- Switches tty control (using ioctl(2)) on (+tty) or off (-tty). Normally tty control is switched on. This default depends on the installation. You may wish to switch tty control off if SWI-Prolog is used from an editor such as GNU Emacs. If switched off, get_single_char/1 and the tracer will wait for a carriage return.
- Disable handling of signals. Often used if SWI-Prolog is embedded in another application on Unix systems.
- Stops scanning for more arguments.
- Location for finding the startup file boot64.prc and the libraries. Normally discovered from the executable or configured default location. Providing the value through the environment may be needed if SWI-Prolog is embedded into another executable.
ON-LINE HELPSWI-Prolog has on-line help. This provides a fast lookup and browsing facility to the SWI-Prolog Reference manual. The on-line manual can show predicate definitions as well as entire sections of the manual.
- Equivalent to help(help/1).
Show a specified part of the manual.
is one of:
- give help on the specified predicate
- give help on the named predicate with any arity or a C interface function with that name.
- display the specified section of the SWI-Prolog Reference Manual. Section numbers are dash separated numbers: e.g. 2-3 refers to section 2.3 of the manual.
If Prolog is used together with the GUI tool XPCE, these predicates start a graphical interface, providing a coherent interface to help/1, apropos/1 and explain/1.
FILESThis installation of SWI-Prolog has been configured using the configure option --prefix=/usr. If the files listed below are not at the indicated place, the installation has probably been moved. Use
- ?- current_prolog_flag(home, Home).
- to find the local installation directory of SWI-Prolog.
- Personal initialisation files consulted by SWI-Prolog on startup. If both exist .swiplrc is used.
- Location for the executables.
- Location for the include files. If writable, SWI-Prolog.h is also copied to /usr/include/SWI-Prolog.h.
- SWI-Prolog user libraries.
SWI-Prolog kernel parts written in Prolog. The startup file
/usr/lib/swipl-7.4.2/boot64.prc may be recreated using
the command from the directory /usr/lib/swipl-7.4.2:
- bin/amd64/swipl -O -o boot64.prc -b boot/init.pl
- HTML and/or PDF documentation on the installed add-ons.
- Default startup file. This is a `intermediate code' file containing precompiled code from the boot directory. The -xbootfile option may be used to select a different file.
- SWI-Prolog library for embedding. See also plld(1).
The SWI-Prolog web-home at www.swi-prolog.org
Jan Wielemaker SWI-Prolog Reference Manual at www.swi-prolog.org/pldoc/index.html
Documentation on the add-on packages in /usr/lib/swipl-7.4.2/boot/doc
William F. Clocksin & Christopher S. Mellish, Programming in Prolog, fourth edition, Springer Verlag, Berlin 1994.