dpkg manual page - dpkg-buildpackage(1)
Copyright © 1995-1996 Ian Jackson
Copyright © 2000 Wichert Akkerman <email@example.com>
Copyright © 2007-2008 Frank Lichtenheld <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Copyright © 2008-2015 Guillem Jover <email@example.com>
Copyright © 2008-2012 Rapha\(:el Hertzog <firstname.lastname@example.org>
This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the Lic...
(The comments found at the beginning of the groff file "man1/dpkg-buildpackage.1".)
dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources
is a program that automates the process of building a Debian package. It
consists of the following steps:
It prepares the build environment by setting various environment
variables (see ENVIRONMENT), runs the init hook, and calls
dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --target
has been used).
It checks that the build-dependencies and build-conflicts
are satisfied (unless -d or --no-check-builddeps is specified).
If one or more specific targets have been selected with the -T or
--target option, it calls those targets and stops here. Otherwise it
runs the preclean hook and calls fakeroot debian/rules clean to
clean the build-tree (unless -nc or --no-pre-clean
It runs the source hook and calls dpkg-source -b to generate
the source package (if a source build has been requested with
--build or equivalent options).
It runs the build hook and calls debian/rules build-target,
then runs the binary hook followed by fakeroot debian/rules
binary-target (unless a source-only build has been requested with
--build=source or equivalent options).
Note that build-target and binary-target are either build
and binary (default case, or if an any and all build
has been requested with --build or equivalent options), or
build-arch and binary-arch (if an any and not all
build has been requested with --build or equivalent options), or
build-indep and binary-indep (if an all and not any
build has been requested with --build or equivalent options).
Unless a source-only build has been requested, it runs the buildinfo
hook and calls dpkg-genbuildinfo to generate a .buildinfo file.
Several dpkg-buildpackage options are forwarded to
It runs the changes hook and calls dpkg-genchanges to
generate a .changes file.
The name of the .changes file will depend on the type of build and
will be as specific as necessary but not more;
for a build that includes any the name will be
or otherwise for a build that includes all the name will be
or otherwise for a build that includes source the name will be
Many dpkg-buildpackage options are forwarded to
It runs the postclean hook and if -tc or --post-clean
is specified, it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again.
It calls dpkg-source --after-build.
It runs the check hook and calls a package checker for the
.changes file (if a command is specified in DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or
It runs the sign hook and calls gpg2 or gpg (as long as it
is not an UNRELEASED build, or --no-sign is specified) to sign the
.dsc file (if any, unless
-us or --unsigned-source is specified), the .buildinfo
file (unless -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo,
-uc or --unsigned-changes is specified) and
the .changes file (unless -uc or --unsigned-changes
It runs the done hook.
All long options can be specified both on the command line and in the
system and user configuration files.
Each line in the configuration file is either an option (exactly the same
as the command line option but without leading hyphens) or a comment (if
it starts with a oq#
Specifies the build type from a comma-separated list of components
(since dpkg 1.18.5).
Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
The allowed values are:
Builds the source package.
Note: when using this value standalone and if what you want is simply to
(re-)build the source package, using dpkg-source is always better
as it does not require any build dependencies to be installed to be able
to call the clean target.
Builds the architecture specific binary packages.
Builds the architecture independent binary packages.
Builds the architecture specific and independent binary packages.
This is an alias for any,all.
This is an alias for source,any,all, and the same as the default
case when no build option is specified.
Equivalent to --build=source,all (since dpkg 1.17.11).
Equivalent to --build=source,any (since dpkg 1.17.11).
Equivalent to --build=binary or --build=any,all.
Equivalent to --build=any.
Equivalent to --build=all.
Equivalent to --build=source.
Equivalent to --build=full, --build=source,binary or
--build=source,any,all (since dpkg 1.15.8).
Calls debian/rules target once per target specified, after
having setup the build environment (except for calling
dpkg-source --before-build), and stops the package build process
here (since dpkg 1.15.0, long option since dpkg 1.18.8, multi-target
support since dpkg 1.18.16).
If --as-root is also given, then the command is executed
as root (see --root-command).
Note that known targets that are required to
be run as root do not need this option (i.e. the clean, binary,
binary-arch and binary-indep targets).
Only meaningful together with --target (since dpkg 1.15.0).
Requires that the target be run with root rights.
Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.
- -a, --host-arch architecture
Specify the Debian architecture we build for (long option since dpkg 1.17.17).
The architecture of the
machine we build on is determined automatically, and is also the default
for the host machine.
- -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
Specify the GNU system type we build for (long option since dpkg 1.17.17).
It can be used in place
of --host-arch or as a complement to override the default GNU system type
of the host Debian architecture.
- --target-arch architecture
Specify the Debian architecture the binaries built will build for
(since dpkg 1.17.17).
The default value is the host machine.
- --target-type gnu-system-type
Specify the GNU system type the binaries built will build for
(since dpkg 1.17.17).
It can be
used in place of --target-arch or as a complement to override the
default GNU system type of the target Debian architecture.
- -P, --build-profiles=profile[,...]
Specify the profile(s) we build, as a comma-separated list (since dpkg 1.17.2,
long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
behavior is to build for no specific profile. Also sets them (as a space
separated list) as the DEB_BUILD_PROFILES environment variable which
allows, for example, debian/rules files to use this information for
- -j, --jobs[=jobs|auto]
Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, number of jobs matching
the number of online processors if auto is specified
(since dpkg 1.17.10), or unlimited number if jobs is not specified,
equivalent to the
option of the same name (since dpkg 1.14.7, long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
Will add itself to the MAKEFLAGS
environment variable, which should cause all subsequent make
invocations to inherit the option, thus forcing the parallel setting on
the packaging (and possibly the upstream build system if that uses make)
regardless of their support for parallel builds, which might cause build
Also adds parallel=jobs or
parallel to the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable which
allows debian/rules files to use this information for their own purposes.
The -j value will override the parallel=jobs or
parallel option in the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable.
Note that the auto value will get replaced by the actual number of
currently active processors, and as such will not get propagated to any
child process. If the number of online processors cannot be inferred then
the code will fallback to using serial execution (since dpkg 1.18.15),
although this should only happen on exotic and unsupported systems.
- -J, --jobs-try[=jobs|auto]
This option (since dpkg 1.18.2, long option since dpkg 1.18.8) is equivalent
to the -j option except that it does not set the MAKEFLAGS
environment variable, and as such it is safer to use with any package
including those that are not parallel-build safe.
auto is the default behavior (since dpkg 1.18.11). Setting the number
of jobs to 1 will restore a serial behavior.
- -D, --check-builddeps
Check build dependencies and conflicts; abort if unsatisfied (long option
since dpkg 1.18.8).
This is the default behavior.
- -d, --no-check-builddeps
Do not check build dependencies and conflicts (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
Do not check built-in build dependencies and conflicts (since dpkg 1.18.2).
These are the distribution specific implicit build dependencies usually
required in a build environment, the so called Build-Essential package set.
- -nc, --no-pre-clean
Do not clean the source tree (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
Implies -b if nothing else has been selected among -F,
-g, -G, -B, -A or -S.
Implies -d with -S (since dpkg 1.18.0).
Clean the source tree before building (since dpkg 1.18.8).
- -tc, --post-clean
Clean the source tree (using
after the package has been built (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
- -r, --root-command=gain-root-command
needs to execute part of the build process as root, it prefixes the
command it executes with
if one has been specified (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
Otherwise, if none has been specified,
fakeroot will be used by default, if the command is present.
should start with the name of a program on the
and will get as arguments the name of the real command to run and the
arguments it should take.
can include parameters (they must be space-separated) but no shell
might typically be
fakeroot, sudo, super or really.
is not suitable, since it can only invoke the user's shell with
instead of passing arguments individually to the command to be run.
- -R, --rules-file=rules-file
Building a Debian package usually involves invoking
as a command with several standard parameters (since dpkg 1.14.17,
long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
With this option it's
possible to use another program invocation to build the package (it can
include space separated parameters).
Alternatively it can be used to execute the standard rules file with
another make program (for example by using
/usr/local/bin/make -f debian/rules
Command used to check the .changes file itself and any artifact built
referenced in the file (since dpkg 1.17.6).
The command should take the .changes pathname
as an argument. This command will usually be lintian.
Pass option opt to the check-command specified with
DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or --check-command (since dpkg 1.17.6).
Can be used multiple times.
Set the specified shell code hook-command as the hook hook-name,
which will run at the times specified in the run steps (since dpkg 1.17.6).
The hooks will
always be executed even if the following action is not performed (except
for the binary hook).
All the hooks will run in the unpacked source directory.
Note: Hooks can affect the build process, and cause build failures if
their commands fail, so watch out for unintended consequences.
The current hook-name supported are:
init preclean source build binary changes postclean check sign done
The hook-command supports the following substitution format string,
which will get applied to it before execution:
A single % character.
A boolean value (0 or 1), representing whether the following action is
The source package name.
The source package version.
The source package version (without the epoch).
The upstream version.
Pass option opt to dpkg-genbuildinfo (since dpkg 1.18.11).
Can be used multiple times.
- -p, --sign-command=sign-command
When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG to sign a source
control (.dsc) file or a .changes file it will run
sign-command (searching the PATH if necessary) instead of
gpg2 or gpg (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
sign-command will get all the arguments
that gpg2 or gpg would have gotten. sign-command
should not contain spaces or any other shell metacharacters.
- -k, --sign-key=key-id
Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
- -us, --unsigned-source
Do not sign the source package (long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
- -ui, --unsigned-buildinfo
Do not sign the .buildinfo file (since dpkg 1.18.19).
- -uc, --unsigned-changes
Do not sign the .buildinfo and .changes files
(long option since dpkg 1.18.8).
Do not sign any file, this includes the source package, the .buildinfo
file and the .changes file (since dpkg 1.18.20).
Force the signing of the resulting files (since dpkg 1.17.0), regardless of
or other internal heuristics.
Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.
Pass option opt to dpkg-source (since dpkg 1.15.6).
Can be used multiple times.
Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges (since dpkg 1.15.6).
Can be used multiple times.
Change the location of the dpkg database (since dpkg 1.14.0).
The default location is /var/lib/dpkg.
- -?, --help
Show the usage message and exit.
Show the version and exit.
If set, it will be used as the command to check the .changes file
(since dpkg 1.17.6).
Overridden by the --check-command option.
If set, it will be used to sign the .changes and .dsc files
(since dpkg 1.17.2).
Overridden by the --sign-key option.
If set, it will contain a space-separated list of options that might
affect the build process in debian/rules, and the behavior of some
With nocheck the DEB_CHECK_COMMAND variable will be ignored.
With parallel=N the parallel jobs will be set to N,
overridden by the --jobs-try option.
If set, it will be used as the active build profile(s) for the package
being built (since dpkg 1.17.2).
It is a space separated list of profile names.
Overridden by the -P option.
Sets the color mode (since dpkg 1.18.5).
The currently accepted values are: auto (default), always and
Even if dpkg-buildpackage
exports some variables, debian/rules
should not rely on their presence and should instead use the
respective interface to retrieve the needed values, because that
file is the main entry point to build packages and running it
standalone should be supported.
dpkg-architecture is called with the -a and -t
parameters forwarded. Any variable that is output by its -s
option is integrated in the build environment.
This variable is set to the Unix timestamp since the epoch of the
latest entry in debian/changelog, if it is not already defined.
System wide configuration file
- $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/dpkg/buildpackage.conf or
User configuration file.
Compiler flags are no longer exported
Between dpkg 1.14.17 and 1.16.1, dpkg-buildpackage
exported compiler flags (CFLAGS
) with values as returned
. This is no longer the case.
Default build targets
is using the build-arch
targets since dpkg 1.16.2. Those targets are thus
mandatory. But to avoid breakages of existing packages, and ease
the transition, if the source package does not build both architecture
independent and dependent binary packages (since dpkg 1.18.8) it will
fallback to use the build
target if make -f debian/rules -qn
returns 2 as exit code.
It should be possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters
and initial arguments for